UN Resolutions
Guiding principles
Juvenile justice standards
Military legal system
Military orders
Military regulations
Military court decisions
Civilian legal system
Legal opinions
Academic articles
Bookmark and Share
  change font size تصغير الخط تكبير الخط print
Home »

Military orders

On 7 June 1967, Military Order No. 2 was issued imposing martial law on the West Bank. For more than four decades this order has authorised successive Israeli military commanders to exercise full legislative, executive and judicial authority over the Palestinian civilian population. There are now over 1,800 military orders covering a multitude of issues.

The most important military order is MO 1651 which has been amended and reconstituted on many occasions since it was first introduced in 1970. This order outlines the jurisdiction of the courts; regulates the rules of evidence, practice and procedure; and contains the military criminal code for the West Bank. As such, the order regulates the arrest and detention of suspects and establishes a list of crimes and punishments. The types of crimes or “security offences” listed in the order range from causing death, throwing objects including stones, participating in protests and attending political meetings at which more than 10 people are present.

Military Order
Start date
MO 1827 February 2020 This order seeks to impose liability on banks holding accounts for Palestinian families of prisoners receiving funds from the Palestinian Authority relating to the detention. He
MO 1822 September 2019 This order provides that hearings involving minors will be held in camera but "authorizes the court to allow a person or types of persons, including the victim of an offense, to be present at the time of the hearing, all of it or part of it." He, En
MO 1818 October 2019 This order gives military judges a discretion to order the production of a social welfare report ("detention report") at remand hearings to determine whether a child should be released on bail, and on what conditions.  He, En
MO 1799 June 2018
Permits victims of crime to attend proceedings in the military courts even in the case of closed hearings involving minors.
MO 1798 April 2018 This order reduces a number of time periods relating to children in the military courts including: maximum period of detention before being brought before a judge; maximum period of detention prior to indictment; maximum period of detention between indictment and conclusion of the trial. He, En
MO 1754 June 2015 An order to apply parts of the Penal Code to the West Bank. He, En
MO 1745 September 2014 This order amends MO 1651 and provides for the audio-visual recording of police interrogations of minors in “non-security” related offences in the West Bank. The order also stipulates that the interrogations should be conducted and documented in the language of the accused. Ar, He, En
MO 1727 October 2013 This order consolidates a range of previous orders including: the appointment of legal counsel by the court; the presence of parents at the trial; the establishment of separate detention facilities for children; the creation of juvenile military courts; and the age of majority. Ar, He
MO 1726
October 2013
This order amends MO 1651 and reduces the time period in which a child can be held on remand before being charged from 150 days to 130 days.
MO 1711
April 2013
Reduces the period of time in which a child must be brought before a military court judge following arrest. The new order reduces the time period from 4 days to 24 hours, in the case of children aged 12 and 13, and 48 hours for older children.
 Ar, He
MO 1685
August 2012
Reduces the period of time in which adults and children must be brought before a military judge following arrest. The new order reduces the time period from 8 to 4 days.
MO 1676
September 2011
  • Stipulates that children aged 16 and 17 must now be tried in a military juvenile court but are still subject to the same sentencing provisions as adults.
  • New procedures for notifying parents of arrest.
  • New procedures for notifying child of right to consult with a lawyer.
Ar, He, En
MO 1651
May 2010
Consolidates a number of existing military orders and includes the military criminal code and rules of evidence, practice and procedure. This order includes:
  • A list of offences;
  • A section on administrative detention;
  • A section on the military juvenile court; and
  • Provisions for evidence, practice and procedure.
Ar, He, En
MO 1644
September 2009
Establishes a military juvenile court.
MO 144 October 1967 Introduced an amendment to MO 3 by removing Section 35 and all references to the Fourth Geneva Convention.  
MO 101 August 1967 Restricts "politcal" gatherings of 10 or more persons without a permit from the Israeli military commander. The prescribed sentence for this offence is 10 years imprisonment. En
MO 3 June 1967

Section 35: "A military court and the administration of a military court shall fulfill the provisions of the Geneva Convention dated August 12, 1949 Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, in all matters related to legal proceedings, and in all case of contradiction between the Order and the aforesaid Convention, the provisions of the Convention shall prevail."

Some provisions of Israeli civilian law have also been incorporated by reference into military law, most notably provisions relating to procedure and evidence. So for example, Section 86 of MO 1651, provides as follows: “Concerning the laws of evidence, the military court will act in accordance with the obligatory rules in criminal matters in courts within the State of Israel.”